The purpose or meaning of the so-called " Nazca lines " is still uncertain. It is part of the Ventarron temple complex and is known as Collud. The Cupisnique spider deity was associated with hunting nets, textiles, war, and power. One image depicts spider deities holding nets filled with decapitated human heads. Spiders are depicted in Indigenous Australian art , in rock and bark paintings , and for clan totems.
Their totem design is connected with a major regional ceremony, providing a connection with neighboring clans also having spider totems in their rituals. The Tsuchigumo translated as "Earth spiders" [e] of Japan , is a mythical, supernatural creature faced by the legendary Minamoto no Raiko. Depending on the version of the story, the Tsuchigumo was able to take the visage of either a boy or a woman. In one version, while on a search for a mythical giant skull, Minamoto is lured to a house and placed in an illusion created by a Tsuchigumo in the guise of a young boy.
However, after suspecting foul play, Minamoto breaks this illusion by striking out at him with his sword. Minamoto then discovers himself as actually being covered in a spider's web, and after tracking him down, learns that the boy is in reality, a giant spider Tsuchigumo. In the Philippines , there is a Visayan folk tale version of The Spider and the Fly which explains why the spider hates the fly. The 10th-century Saint Conrad of Constance is sometimes represented as a bishop holding a chalice with a spider. According to this story, while he was celebrating Easter Mass , a spider fell into the chalice.
Ignoring the commonly-held belief of the time that all or most spiders were poisonous; as a token of faith, Conrad nevertheless drank the wine with the spider in it. For King Robert the Bruce of Scotland, the spider is depicted as an inspirational symbol, according to an early 14th-century legend. One version tells that while taking refuge in a cave on Rathlin Island ,  he witnesses a spider continuously failing to climb its silken thread to its web.
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However, due to perseverance the spider eventually succeeds, demonstrating that, "if at first you don't succeed, try, try and try again". In Polish folklore and literature , Pan Twardowski - a sorcerer who made a deal with the Devil  - is depicted as having escaped from the Devil who was taking him to Hell, and ending up living on the Moon , his only companion being a spider; from time to time Twardowski lets the spider descend to Earth on a thread and bring him news from the world below.
In Norse mythology , Loki - a trickster deity who had many interactions with the Aesir - might have been associated with spiders, as his name in Old Norse is very similar to Icelandic and Danish words for spiderwebs, knots, and tangles. That is the Buddhist conception of the universe in an image.
In the Vedic philosophy of India , the spider is depicted as hiding the ultimate reality with the veils of illusion. Indra's net has a multifaceted jewel at each vertex, and each jewel is reflected in all of the other jewels. As related in the book, Vermeer's Hat by historian Timothy Brook :. When Indra fashioned the world, he made it as a web, and at every knot in the web is tied a pearl. Everything that exists, or has ever existed, every idea that can be thought about, every datum that is true—every dharma , in the language of Indian philosophy—is a pearl in Indra's net.
Not only is every pearl tied to every other pearl by virtue of the web on which they hang, but on the surface of every pearl is reflected every other jewel on the net. Everything that exists in Indra's web implies all else that exists. The epic poem Metamorphoses , written by Ovid two millennia ago, includes the metamorphosis of Arachne. This was retold in Dante Alighieri 's depiction as the half-spider Arachne in the 2nd book of his Divine Comedy , Purgatorio. Considered as the earliest known work of science fiction in Western literature,  the 2nd century satirical novel, A True Story by Lucian of Samosata includes a battle between the People of the Moon and the People of the Earth featuring giant spiders.
In the 15th century, the French king Louis XI acquired the nickname "the universal spider" l'universelle aragne , from Georges Chastelain , a chronicler of the dukes of Burgundy ,  referring to the king's tendency to implement schemes and plans during his contention with Burgundy and the following conflicts with Charles the Bold. In the 16th-century Chinese folk novel, Wu Cheng'en 's Journey to the West , the buddhist monk Tang Sanzang 's odyssey includes being trapped in a spider's cave and bound by beautiful women and many children, who are transformations of spiders.
Published in , the poem Marmion by Walter Scott [h] includes the popularly quoted line:. Atlach-Nacha resembles a huge spider with an almost-human face. In the story, Atlach-Nacha is the reluctant recipient of a human sacrifice given to it by the toad-god Tsathoggua. Spiders recur in themes for works by J. In The Lord of the Rings , the creature's final surviving daughter Shelob is encountered as Frodo and Sam move through the mountain pass of Cirith Ungol.
Shelob was featured in the film adaption of the last book of the Lord of the Rings series. He also resurrected the Old English words cob and lob for "spider". A key element of Richard Matheson 's novel The Shrinking Man and the film based on it The Incredible Shrinking Man is the struggle of the protagonist, shrunken to the size of an insect, with a voracious spider - ending with his waging an epic battle and killing the spider with a straight pin. Having a human shrunken to the spider's size had essentially the same result as Tolkien's giant spiders, in both cases making the spider a formidable and highly threatening foe.
The children's novel Charlotte's Web written by E. White , is notable in its portrayal of the spider in a positive manner  as a heroine  rather than an object of fear or horror. More recently, giant spiders have featured in books such as the fantasy novel Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets by J. In Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them , a book about many of the creatures within the Harry Potter universe , these giant spiders are also known as Acromantulas.
The spider is also found in modern children's tales. The poem " The Spider and the Fly " by Mary Howitt is a cautionary tale of seduction and betrayal which later inspired a film and a Rolling Stones song , each sharing the same title, as well as a cartoon by Aesop Fables Studio. At last, Up jumped the cunning Spider, and fiercely held her fast. He dragged her up his winding stair, into his dismal den, Within his little parlour — but she ne'er came out again! And now dear little children, who may this story read, To idle, silly flattering words, I pray you ne'er give heed: Unto an evil counsellor, close heart and ear and eye, And take a lesson from this tale, of the Spider and the Fly.
In graphic novels , spiders are often adapted by superheroes or villains as their symbols or alter egos due to the arachnid's strengths and weaknesses. One of the most notable characters in comic book history has taken his identity from the spider, the Marvel comic book hero Spider-Man.
Peter Parker was accidentally bitten by a radioactive spider and then, as Spider-Man, was able to scale tall buildings and shoot web fluid from a device attached to his wrist. Along with these abilities, came super-senses and instant reflexes. Writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko originated this franchise. Due to the character's popularity, Spider-Man appeared in movies and various other media.
In the Static Shock series, Anansi the Spider takes his name and techniques from the African trickster god. In the second season of the anime based on the manga Kuroshitsuji , one main antagonist, the demon butler Claude Faustus, has spider-like qualities and powers. He is also capable of transforming into a spider and making webs. In the manga The Saga of Darren Shan , the titular character is fascinated by spiders. He kept them as pets until he killed one that he got when he was nine years old. He used to let them go into his mouth and he would imagine them eating him from the inside out.
Normally, the spiders would stay with him for about a day or two, but some lasted longer. Later on, we find out that he can communicate with spiders. The manga Ghost in The Shell by Masamune Shirow prominently features spider-like, AI-equipped, multi-legged combat vehicles called Fuchikoma evolving into the Tachikoma , Uchikoma and Logicoma in subsequent anime versions of the series.
These mobile weapons platforms are used by the members of Section 9 to aid in their various missions.
In the manga Monster Musume by Okayado the character Rachnera Arachnera is an Arachne who is feared by her host family and initially abandoned. She demonstrates skills in web weaving. She initially hated humans for how judgmental they were of her, but Kimihito was able to change her mind; she now lives with him.
Trapped in a world based around Japanese role-playing game tropes , she makes use of webs, various types of poison and venom attacks, and her intellect to survive. Spiders have been present for many decades both in film and on television, predominantly in the horror genre. Those who suffer from arachnophobia , an acute fear of spiders, become particularly horrified.
The spider web is used as a motif to adorn dark passageways, depicting the recesses of the unknown. Spider themes are featured in early film history. In Fritz Lang 's and The Spiders adventure series, a spider is the calling-card for "The Spiders" criminal organization. Many horror films have featured the spider, including 's Tarantula! The fear of spiders culminates in Arachnophobia , a movie in which spiders multiply in large numbers.
On the other hand, a person who admires spiders is referred to as an "arachnophile";  such as Virginia, a demented orphan who likes to play deadly spider-like games in the black comedy horror B movie , Spider Baby. The Godzilla franchise includes a giant spider kaiju named Kumonga "Spiga" in the English versions , first appearing in 's Son of Godzilla. The film Wild Wild West features a giant mechanical spider. Experiments with spiders in space tend to go horribly wrong, as with a DNA experiment on board a NASA space shuttle in the film Spiders ,   or mutant spiders from a derelict Soviet space station in the film Spiders 3D.
Radiation and spiders once again combine to wreak havoc in the film spoof Eight Legged Freaks , this time due to nuclear waste. Cavatica's positive portrayal of a spider character can be seen in two full-length feature versions of Charlotte's Web. The first Charlotte's Web was a Hanna-Barbera musical animated film released in , followed by a live-action film version of the original story. Furthermore, spider characters have crawled out of the pages of comic books and onto the big screen, most notably the Spider-Man film adaptations.
On television, the miniseries Stephen King's It is based on his novel It , where the true form of Pennywise the Dancing Clown resembles a monstrous spider. The plot of the Doctor Who episode " Arachnids in the UK " revolves around an infestation of giant spiders that has occurred as the result of a scientific experiment. Released in , " Boris the Spider " was the first song written by John Entwistle for The Who , and became a staple of their live concerts. Information technology terms such as the "web spider" or " web crawler " and the World Wide Web imply the spider-like connection of information accessed on the Internet.
A dance, the tarantella , refers to the spider Lycosa tarantula. Giant spider sculptures 11 feet tall and 22 feet across described as "looming and powerful protectresses, yet are nurturing, delicate, and vulnerable"  and a "favorite with children"  have been found in Washington DC , Denver CO , and elsewhere. The larger series is titled Maman and the other simply titled Spider. A four-day performance art spectacle in Liverpool September featured La Princesse by the French performance art company La Machine. This giant steam-punk spider climbed walls, stalked the streets and sprayed unwary citizens while in search of a nest.
This trilogy also includes the Ing, antagonists of Echoes , whose warrior forms resemble five-legged spiders. Atlach-Nacha is an H-game centered on a spider demon disguising herself as a human. In The Legend of Zelda series, giant spiders are a frequent foe. In particular, Ocarina of Time features large spiders named Skulltulas, and Twilight Princess has an enormous spider boss.
A anthropomorphic spider-like creature named Muffet is featured in the video game Undertale. In the Lego toyline Bionicle series, the Visorak horde is a species consisting of six spider-like breeds. They are created by the Brotherhood of Makuta to conquer islands; they possess mutagenic venom and spin sticky green webs. In the Transformers franchise, Tarantulas and Blackarachnia are both Predacons that turn into giant spiders.
Blackarachnia, being part biological, has venom that paralyzes other Transformers and she is capable of spinning webs. Notable athletes with spider nicknames include Olympic skier "Spider" Sabich , so named by his father due to his long, thin arms and legs as a baby,  and UFC Middleweight Champion Anderson "The Spider" Silva who was dubbed "Brazil's Spiderman" by an announcer who thought he looked like a superhero in the ring.
Part 2 consists of seven chapters contributed by leading figures and current practitioners from around the world and covering a diverse range of themes, methodologies and aesthetic approaches. One chapter offers a series of case studies concerned with sexual health education and HIV prevention, drawn from practitioners working in Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, Southern Africa, and China. Other chapters include studies of intercultural theatre in the Peruvian Amazon; a programme of applied theatre conducted in schools in Canterbury, New Zealand, following the earthquake; an attempt to reinvigorate a community theatre group in South Brazil; and an exchange between a Guatemalan arts collective and a Dutch youth theatre company, besides others" Performance and civic engagement by Ananda Breed 12 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide This book explores 'civic engagement' as a politically active encounter between institutions, individuals and art practices that addresses the public sphere on a civic level across physical and virtual spaces.
Taking a multidisciplinary approach, it tracks across the overlapping discourses of politics, cultural geography and performance, investigating how and why physical and digital spaces can be analysed and utilized to develop new art forms that challenge traditional notions of how performance is political and how politics are performative.
Across three sections - Politicising Communities, Applying Digital Agency and Performing Landscapes and Identities - the ten chapters and three interviews cover a wide variety of international perspectives, all informed by innovative ways of addressing the current crisis of social fragmentation through performance. Providing access to many debates on the theory and practice of new media, this book is of significance to readers from a broad set of academic disciplines, including politics, sociology, geography, and performance studies.
Requiem together with its Maquettes by Francis Warner Book 2 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. A journey of art and conflict : weaving Indra's net by David Oddie Book 4 editions published in in English and held by 73 WorldCat member libraries worldwide A Journey of Art and Conflict: Weaving Indra's Net is a deeply personal exploration of David Oddie's attempts to uncover the potential of the arts as a resource for reconciliation in the wake of conflict and for the creative transformation of conflict itself.
It began when Oddie, seeing the fractured world around him, asked himself what he could do to help; that question set him off on travels around the world, including to Palestine, Kosovo, South Africa, India, Northern Ireland, Brazil, and other places. In each location he met with people with first hand experience of conflict and worked wi.
by David Oddie
Off the verandah by Bruce Dakowski Visual 2 editions published between and in English and held by 17 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Examines the work of Bronislaw Malinowski, who studied the people of the Trobriands, a group of Pacific Islands, altering the idea that native peoples were primitive savages.
Development Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Banking on drama education by Tim Prentki Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide "Here we find a passionate and erudite argument for critical consciousness as an essential underpinning for TiE and TfD. Prentki reminds us that!
From neocolonial to postcolonial : some implications for the practice of Theatre for Development by Tim Prentki 2 editions published in in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. What makes Biblio different? Facebook Instagram Twitter. Sign In Register Help Cart. Cart items. Toggle navigation. Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service! Log-in or create an account first!