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I'm finishing a book; not sure whether to use kdp select or some other publishing source to get it published. Chris Fielden Dave, I don't think it really matters which tense you use - whichever suits your story best. I think the reason that short stories often use the present tense is because many readers find it more immediate and engaging, so it works well for shorter works where it's important to suck the reader in quickly. So there is no right or wrong way of doing it, you simply have to pick which tense works best for you. You can switch between tenses, but I would recommend making clear breaks in the story, like you would when switching character viewpoint.

That way the reader understands the need for the switch and doesn't become confused. Editing is something you get better at as you write more and learn from your mistakes. When I first started out, I paid professionals to critique my work. It helps you learn and improve your writing. This is particularly important with novels or longer stories as they need more editing. With shorter works, I ask family, friends, and the members of the writing group I belong to, to proofread my work and find typos and mistakes.

The other thing to do is read your story many times, preferably with a break of 2 or 3 days between reads. That way, you edit with a clear head and mistakes are easier to spot. All are worth investigating, but if you intend to sell online, Amazon is probably your best bet as it is most widely known. Dave S Hi Chris, many thanks for your comments. I'll certainly bear them in mind as I continue to do more writing. Thanks once again for your list.

It is proving useful. Adi B Hey Chris. First of all thanks a lot for all you're work! I think you've made the question of how to get read a lot less scary and open. Secondly, and sorry if I'm being a bother - where are the international competitions - if say I'm neither British, American, Canadian etc?

Chris Fielden Adi, you're welcome - I'm glad you find the site useful :. The vast majority of these competitions are international and will accept entries from writers residing anywhere in the world. The countries are just listed for information. James W Chris, I thought you might be interested in adding the Poetic Republic short story competition to your very useful list of competitions on your website.

It works a bit like Scribble, with the readers of the competition reading and scoring other entrants' stories. You also receive comments from readers on your stories. I entered last year the first year they ran a short story competition and had about 20 different comments back. It's well worth taking part, though you do have to commit to reading quite a lot of stories in order to enter. Chris Fielden James, thanks very much for letting me know about this. I am wondering if you can recommend any please? The story is set in but I am not really looking for something specifically Science Fiction, just one that will take stories of 2, words without being too specific about criteria.

It has a 3, word limit, so fine for your story. Chris G Chris, I really appreciate your help. Thanks so much. Lani N Hi there, thanks for this very comprehensive list!! I live in South Africa and there are a number of these competitions I'd like to enter. Am I allowed to enter a competition in Scotland, for example, if I don't live there?

Kind regards, Lani. Chris Fielden Lani, you will have to check the submission rules for each competition, but the majority of short story contests accept entries from writers living anywhere in the world Lani N Hi there, awesome, thank you for letting me know. I appreciate it. Simon H Hi Chris, I love your web site - thought you may like to know Askance Publishing are back with a short story competition after a year off.

Ashley W Hi! Thanks for your very valuable resource here! I have a question about entering short story competitions. Should I enter my stories in one competition at a time? Or is it OK to submit the same short story to multiple contests? I am a little concerned that if I win in one then it becomes a published story and that means if it also wins in another then it is actually no longer eligible. Chris Fielden Ashley, there are some competitions that welcome simultaneous submissions, and some that accept previously published work too.

So with those, it's fine to submit elsewhere. It's also highly unlikely that you'll win two competitions, even if you're some sort of literary genius as competition judges and magazine editors' tastes and requirements vary so much. If you did have a story accepted whilst it was under consideration elsewhere, you would simply have to withdraw it.

You'd probably lose any submission fee and run the risk of being blacklisted for that particular competition, if they specifically requested previously unpublished work that was not under consideration elsewhere. But the likelihood of that happening is slim. I do submit simultaneously as it results in more publishing success far more quickly. But I think very carefully about where I simultaneously submit.

For example, I do not do this with prestigious competitions and publications that I submit to every year as it's not worth the risk of potentially being blacklisted if Fate were to work His magic Can you recommend a good crime short story competition? Not sure which to enter from your website. Chris Fielden James, the Bloody Scotland competition is the only one I'm aware of that is currently running and just about crime. It's featured in the lists above. Sara P Thank you very much for all this information!

I'd like to ask if you know about any Spanish speaking competitions based in England. Thanks a lot! Chris Fielden Sara, I'm afraid not. The only competition I'm aware of that asks for entries in Spanish or English is based in South America. It's called the Southern Pacific Review and is featured in the lists above. Sara P Christopher, thank you very much for your information. I'll have a look at the competition you mentioned.

Have a lovely day! Ashley W Hi Chris! They have a panel of judges which they rotate. Thanks for your advice in answer to my previous mail in March, your site is truly very useful. I haven't won a comp yet, but hope springs eternal. I got a mail from Chaptercheckers regarding them going monthly rather than weekly and apologising for their slow feedback. Glacial might be more apt. Let's hope they get their act together. Congratulations on all the short-listings. And have updated Needle in the Hay info too. I recently heard from Chapter Checkers and they said they were overwhelmed with entries so had to go monthly.

Must be a nightmare to keep up with comms. I find it hard enough with my yearly comp! Frank WM Hey Mr. Fielden, I'm somebody who writes and submits short-stories, and I have used your lists many times. Thanks to your meticulous index, I've discovered so many journals that I otherwise would never have known about! And I've had two stories accepted now, so that feels great. Anyway, I owe you a big thanks. Deshraj Sir, how can I participate in these competitions and submit my stories because all my stories are written in Hindi.

Please give me suggestions about my problem. Chris Fielden Deshraj, I'd suggest trying to find competitions that are run in countries that speak Hindi and therefore request stories in that language. I'm afraid I am not aware of any competitions like this, so you'd have to research and see if you can find any.

Failing that, you could have your stories translated into English and then submit to competitions in English speaking countries. You would have to have them translated professionally, preferably by a native speaker, or they would be unlikely to be published. Chris Fielden Thanks for the heads up Darrell. I've added the short story competition and children's writing contest. Shirley M Dear Chris, I know you can't do everything, but can you insert a 'search' option that will allow me to find, for example, sci-fi? Even if you can't do these additional things, I believe yours is one of the most comprehensive target opportunities for writers and I commend you for that.

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Chris Fielden Hi Shirley, thanks for your suggestions. A search box will appear top right in Chrome, but may vary on other browsers like Firefox, IE, Safari etc. I hope that makes sense and is useful! Linda T I wondered if you had any information on WriteStars. Their website shows they are running two themed flash fiction competitions, but one has a different word count depending on the webpage, and I've been unable to contact them.

My email of six days ago hasn't been answered and the connection dropped when I tried to ring them. Given there's an entry fee for the competitions, this is worrying.. Have you tried contacting them on Twitter or Facebook? Ted I Hey Christopher, thank you so much for collating such extensive lists! Chris Fielden Thanks very much, Ted!

Have updated the Writing Maps listing accordingly I noticed another couple of glitches as I've been making my way through the list so I thought I'd also send them to you, just in case:. Lastly the Etherbooks page seems a little silent on the comps front—none for over two years—so I'm not sure whether that is soon to be a dead end. Once again, thanks a lot. I have just this minute finished my ploughing through the list and others that they led on to and need to give my eyes and mind rest.

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A few days reading pulled up some 40 or so competitions that suit me well so I'm excited to now gun for them. I've just tried the Aeon Award link through your site and have once again found no luck with either safari or firefox. Should the link take me to this site: albedo1. Because that's where I end up, with the error message. Moreover, the Etherbooks link takes me to a page which looks the same as the old one to me, with no comps listed under the headings. I apologize if I am missing something very obvious here or doing something wrong but I'd rather risk ridicule and mention it again, just in case.

Chris Fielden Hi Ted, nope, no ridicule at all, your input is very helpful It looks like Albedo 1 are having some technical issues with website updates — details on their Facebook page. Judging by the latest comment, it looks like they will have 2 sites up and running at some point a.

I guess a lot of sites are run by hobbyists or companies with small budgets, meaning updates can a tad on the slow side! Ted I Ah, I see. No worries and thanks for the info! I'm sure most people are as grateful and patient as I am for the fruits of your 'hobbying' labour. I'm just glad to return the favour, in whatever small way. So if I spot anything when looking through the whole list again next year, I'll just pop it this ol' mailbox here, for whenever you're ready.

PS I entered my first ever comp at NiTH last week and got short listed , so a nice start and a good spring board towards other sites' comps with deadlines this week. It's all a go go! Chris Fielden Thanks Ted, yes, please keep me updated with any issues you spot — your help is very much appreciated Ted I Hey Chris, stumbled upon a short story comp and entered it last week. It's a monthly contest that's been going a while and doesn't appear to be stopping.

I just saw it wasn't in your list so thought I'd share it, in case you deemed it worthy - it's called The Cult Of Me. Not sure how blogspot works but the link seems to have added the. I just finished that mad week of deadlines six! This is a lot of fun and a bit cray cray. PS If it happens you aren't open to suggestions of comp finds such, or if you are but have specific criteria, feel free to let me know so I don't bombard you unnecessarily :.

And thanks for sharing. We MAY have another competition in , though. Am still preening myself on getting a commended Sam C Hi Chris, I'm sure I came across, on your site a year ago, a competition run by a publishing house where on some forum web-portal thingy budding authors submit a chapter of their work, and then it gets pier reviewed by other participants, and they do the same Do you have any idea what I might be on about? I can't find it anymore. PPS Just put some of my own writing up on a website. It's a thrill going public for the first time :.

If so, they have a new website called Publisher Free. My competition is open for entries all the time — next closing date is 31st July I wish you the best of luck with it. Simon M You may like to know that the "e-Literate-World Cut A Long Story Short Competition" link is dead - the domain appears to have been closed down, suggesting they no longer exist at all a quick Google search didn't bring them up anywhere else. Brian O When a competition in your table is classified as 'England'do you mean 'England' or do you mean 'Britain'? Not a trivial difference.

I enjoyed your informative material. Chris Fielden Hi Brian. It means England, not Britain. This is because I try and list Scotland and Wales separately - it's just so writers know the locality of the market they are submitting to. Peter N Christopher, thank you for this site. It is an act of great generosity on your part. They explain why on the website. Chris Fielden Thanks for letting me know, Peter - much appreciated. I've updated the lists accordingly and sadly moved Writers' Village into the history of closed competitions.

Jill O Hi Chris, your very extensive list of competitions is excellent. However, I have a memoir of approx 2, words which I would like to submit. Most competitions request fiction. Chris Fielden Hi Gill. I list some non-fiction competitions on this page , which might be appropriate. I hope that's helpful. If you find any other memoir competitions, please let me know as I do get asked about them from time to time - it seems there aren't that many out there.

Lyn T Just a quick thank you for putting together these lists, most helpful. Chris Fielden Thanks, Lyn. Glad you find them useful Ayo O You are doing a good job for writers of various genres and interests. This is really appreciated. For instance: are Africans expected to be a part of this or would an application from India or China be welcomed and rewarded accordingly without prejudice or bias? Chris Fielden Hi Ayo.

Glad you find the lists useful. And thanks for the suggestion. Unfortunately I can't add these details to the lists as they change frequently and the amount of admin involved makes it impossible to maintain. Most competitions accept entries from writers located anywhere in the world. Some have limitations. Please check the websites of any competition you plan to enter to see what the current details are prior to entering. I work with a group of indigent young people whom I am encouraging to write and earn some money. We shall keep trying. Excellent stuff, good luck with it all — I hope some of them see their stories in print soon I've been reading your website and find it very useful.

I'm just starting out in the short story business and have been having a look at what's out there. I'm planning on entering tomorrow night just before the deadline. The details are below, what do you think? I guess I'm just suspicious as the prize is so big and it's free to enter:. Chris Fielden Hi Chris, glad to hear you are finding the site useful. I suspect they have a decent marketing budget and therefore are able to offer a good prize with no entry fee.

Looking at the amount of physical locations they have on their contact page, they must be a pretty big business. Also, the level of engagement looks good — there are quite a few entries. And they are supporting a very worthy charity through the competition, so it looks legitimate to me. While it looks like the copyright remains with the author, Success Tax Professionals can edit your work and publish it with a different title if they want without crediting you as the author. Michael W Hi Chris. Chris Fielden Hi Mike. It varies from competition to competition - some say that if you've self-published on your blog it's fine, others say it's not.

I'm afraid you'll have to review the guidelines for each competition and see which are OK with it. Some comps accept previously published stories too, so it's always worth looking. Auriel R Hi Christopher, I just wanted to thank you for putting together the detailed list of short story contests because I had no idea what to do with the rather good little story I wrote last year which ended up being selected for the HG Wells story anthology.

That boost led to me spinning this story into an entire novel which is published this year with Unbound. Chris Fielden Hi Auriel. Rex G Dear Chris, your site is fascinating and informative. Audio Arcadia Short Story Competition claim on their website that the closing date for submissions is 30th September and that the winners will be published on 10th October How can this be? Audio Arcadia might well pass judgment on my work in my allotted time frame but can their timetable be true? Sounds fishy to me - what do you think? And they may not receive that many entries. As they run the competition regularly, that is quite possible.

I run an annual contest and received entries this year its 3rd year of running, so becoming established. So, if a contest is run more regularly, they probably receive fewer entries than that. They may also have a team of readers, which speeds up the judging process considerably. So it is doable. Admittedly, it took a bit longer than that to decide on the longlist and shortlist, but like I said, I am but one man. A team can do things much more quickly.

I am going to make a competition diary so I don't miss out on any and always have something to enter. Thank you once again. Dominika S Hi Chris, guess I won't be original by congratulating you on the research and data presentation - that's really helpful to all young writers out there!


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My problem is that I'm based in Poland but write in English. Are you aware of any short story competitions I could take part in? You mentioned there are some with global reach but in the country secrion it's usually UK or US and I guess I'm not elibible to enter these.

Thanks in advance for your help! Chris Fielden Hi Dominika. Thank you - glad to hear you find the lists useful There are some that are aimed at local audiences, but most are open to anyone. The countries mentioned in the listings just show you where the competitions are based many users like to know what market they are submitting to. This doesn't mean you have to live there to enter. The best bet is to look at the different websites listed and read their submission guidelines. I just entered it! Chris Fielden Thanks for letting me know, Brendan - much appreciated.

I've updated the details accordingly Moshe P Thank you so much for such a useful list. Very much appreciated. I myself am looking for kids magazines written by Any clue about? Thank you very much. Chris Fielden Hi Moshe. Glad you are finding the list useful Many of the publications you mentioned are listed on my short story magazines page. I'm afraid I'm not aware of any magazines written by children. Sorry I can't be of more help with that. Please let me know if you find any. Moshe P Thanks Chris, for your message.

I have another question, please. A short story of mine recently received an Honorable Mention from Glimmer Train and I need now to re-submit it to the world. My question is, am I 'allowed' to make some changes, to expand a paragraph or two after it won this really exciting mention? Is it 'normal'? Is it OK, or I should leave it untouched, as it is?

If Glimmer Train are going to publish it, then you will have to ask them if you can make changes prior to publication. The story is yours so you can do whatever you want. Rules usually apply to published stories only. Still, if you do submit to a competition or magazine that does accept previously published work after your story has been published, you could make changes prior to submitting. Andy C Hi Chris, just wanted to say thank you for the information you provide on here.

It's really helpful! Chris Fielden No problem, Andy - glad to hear you find it useful Jeff D Currently, I am writing a full novel. But, this is a list of exciting opportunities for new writers. Competition motivates you to become a better writer. I have entered several short story collection competitions this year and will enter more.

My experience in a small sample of fiction contests is that most allow 'some' previously published stories. As always, the definition of 'previously published' varies. Some competitions read blind; some require credits for previously published work; some stipulate that you shall NOT list credits because it would break the blind. Some offer critiques of your submission. Some will DQ your entry if it is submitted in anything but Courier.

Wow, eh? Does the Church of TNR know about this? The Garamondites? Anyway - Julie, good luck on climbing Everest, in the dark, in winter, without oxygen. Just like me! Chris Fielden Thanks for sharing your experiences, Mitchell - very useful and appreciated HS C Thank you for such a fantastic resource! This is really well put together and incredibly helpful Excel may hate me now, but oh well. I've been busy checking out the finer details of some of the competitions and choosing which to submit to.

It's taking a long while to compile so I cannot begin to imagine how long this must have taken you! Chris Fielden No problem, HS, glad to hear you find the lists useful. They do take a long time to put together and keep updated, but I think it's worth the effort Donna W This is my first time on this site and its overwhelming. Some of the contests have closed and they should be removed from the site. Chris Fielden Hi Donna. There is a lot of information and it can be overwhelming at first If you've spotted some that have closed, please let me know which ones and I'll amend the listings accordingly - any help is much appreciated.

Many of the contests run annually, so those listings remain active continuously, even if they have closed this year. Please bear that in mind when using the lists Simon C Hi Chris. Just wanted to say a big thanks for the lists of short story competitions you maintain. I finally decided to try my hand at writing, entered the Audio Arcadia short story competition, pointed to by your web site, and was lucky enough to be one of the winners!

It's answered for me finally! Thanks again for putting up the list on your web site. Best regards. Chris Fielden Hi Simon. And thanks for letting me know the lists helped you find the competition — that kind of feedback makes it all worthwhile Michael H Dear Mr. Fielden, I have previously found your schedules very helpful but currently I appear to have struck a blank. Last year I submitted a story of 4, words to Costa but without success and decided that this year I would send it off again — this time to the Kingston Writing School where you indicated that submissions would be between June and November this year.

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In view of the fact that the relevant entry form was not online I wrote to the organisers who have now told me that the competition will not be taking place. I have researched your lists but cannot find an alternative suitable competition which I can now enter of up to 5, words. Chris Fielden Hi Michael. And Writing Magazine also run competition lists, but I think they only do that every 6 months or so. Or try the other sites I link to on my competition lists page, that also run lists like mine. You might find some other opportunities there. Just wondered if they had closed up shop.

Chris Fielden Hi Shirley. Thanks for letting me know about this. I've contacted Sue, who runs it, to see if it's a glitch, or if it has actually closed. Further to previous, the email I sent Sue bounced with a 'this email doesn't exist anymore' message, so I guess the site has closed. John N Wish you would update your website regularly. Have been waiting for a nature based competition to open based upon what you have written on your site - turns out it ended 2 years ago. Sorry about that. I assume you're referring to the New Welsh Review?

I have updated that listing accordingly. I update this page around once a week. Unfortunately, it's impossible to check every listing that regularly. I do a full update every January. This is why I always recommend going to the websites I list and contacting them directly if you have any queries about the competition they run EG, when they are going to run next, what the current theme is etc.

I appreciate it when people, like you, let me know if any of the information I list is incorrect as it helps keep everything up to date. So thanks for letting me know. I hope the above explains the situation. I do my best to stay on top of it, but due to the amount of websites I'm dealing with, it's not easy! Chris Fielden No problem, Sarah - glad you find it useful James A Great website and loads of useful information here as well as in Chris's book. I found the list of competitions very useful as well as the explanation about why this is a good route to follow. Anyone know if this competition is still running and how to enter?

Chris Fielden Hi James. The UK site seems to have disappeared, but there is a US one now. See usissc. I've retired the UK listing and emailed the US site. Dai L Cool site, but I thought I'd make you aware of a competition you seem to have overlooked. I administer the entries and distribution to the judges so I can't enter, shucks. If you want to know more and maybe add us to your list, do have a look at our site and if you have any questions, do let me know. I'm currently trying to streamline the entry process and make the entry form a purely online affair, if I can get it to attach the story files and send the punters to the Charities Aid Foundation to pay their ten pound entry fees.

Chris Fielden Hi Dai. Daynard K, Daynard T What are the effects of biofuels and bioproducts on the environment, crop and food prices and World hunger?. Devine-Wright P Reconsidering public attitudes and public acceptance of renewable energy technologies: A critical review. Jamasb, M. Grubb, M. Pollitt Eds. Cambridge University Press, — Local aspects of UK renewable energy development: exploring public beliefs and policy implications.

Local Environment , 10, 57— Field A FAO The state of food and agriculture. ISSN Subject knowledge and perceptions of bioenergy among school teachers in India: Results from a survey. Resources , 3, ; doi Knowledge, perceptions and attitudes as determinants of youths' intentions to use bioenergy e a cross-national perspective. Int J Green Energy , 10 8 , International survey on bioenergy knowledge, perceptions and attitudes among young Citizens. Bio Energy Research 5, — DOI Halder P Bioenergy knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among young citizens—from cross-national surveys to conceptual model.

Energy Policy, 38, — IEA Bioenergy — A sustainable and reliable energy source. Jadama LM Impact of subject matter knowledge of a teacher in teaching and learning process. Jaramillo-Nieves L, del Rio P Sustainability , 2, Karytsas S, Theodoropoulou H Socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence publics' awareness on the different forms of renewable energy sources. Renewable Energy , 71, Kassinis S The Status of Hydrocarbon Exploration in Cyprus. Kollmuss A, Agyeman J Mind the Gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers topro-environmental behavior?

Environmental Education Research , 8, — DOI: Krajhanzl J Environmental and pro-environmental behavior. School and Health , 21, Attitudes toward sustainability and green economy issues related to some student learning their characteristics: A preliminary Study. Sustainability , 6, Muderrisoglu H, Altanlar A Attitudes and behaviors of undergraduate students toward environment issues.

International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 8 1 , Omria A, Kahouli B Causal relationships between energy consumption, foreign direct investment and economic growth: Fresh evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equations models. Energy Policy , 67, — Biofuels, agriculture and poverty reduction. Natural Resource Perspectives. Overseas Development Institute. Pickens J Attitudes and Perception. Pirlogea C, Cicea C Econometric perspective of the energy consumption and economic growth relation in European Union. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. The effect of bioenergy expansion: Food, energy, and environment.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 32, —, doi Reddy AKN Energy and social issues. World energy assessment: energy and the challenge of sustainability, UNDP. Socio-economic analysis of bioenergy systems: A focus on employment. Steg L, Vlek C Encouraging pro-environmental behavior: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 29 3 , Stern DI Economic growth and energy. Encyclopedia of Energy , 2, Energy and economic growth. Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics. Tavakol M, Dennick R Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies.

Energy Policy 33, — Biofuels and environmental impacts. Scientific analysis and implications for sustainability. Wall G Energy, society and morals. Journal of Human Values , 3 2 , WBA Global Bioenergy Statistics report. WEF Wright YL Relating recycling: Demographics, attitudes, knowledge and recycling behavior among uc Berkeley students. Yang AG, Pearce S Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology , 9 2 , In recent years, the new environmental problem are arising due to industrial hazard wastage, global climate change, ground water contamination and etc.

The present study about contamination of ground water due to trace metals in and around the Vijayawada. The study area divided into five zones depending on the nature of industries are present in the study area. In some ground water sample are found to be more concentration of metals are exceeds maximum limits values of WHO, ISI standards.

The result gives important information of ground water quality. Bridge simulator constitutes a very fundamental and vital tool to trigger and ensure that seamen or seafarers possess the standardized competence required. By using the bridge simulator technique, a reality based study can be presented easily and delivered to the students in ongoing basis to their classroom or study place.

Afterwards, the validity training and testing as well as the consistent and precise teaching materials could be carried out to all students. One of the challenging issues encountered nowadays, particularly in the sphere of education, more specifically at the Merchant Marine Polytechnic in conjunction with the Maritime English learning model for the ANT II Program is that the Maritime English Learning System conducted or carried out remains teacher-centered where the teachers still play major and more dominant role and function as the primary source of information which is considered not effective.

Therefore, the main thing to figure out is how to create an effective Maritime English Learning Model in relation to the education and training or seafarers level II at Merchant Marine Polytechnic. The validity, practicality, and effectiveness of the product were determined using the developed tables.

In addition, the learning outcomes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test to analyze the significance of differences both groups.

The research proves that this model is valid, practical and effective to use in learning. Therefore, it can be concluded that this model can be applied in the maritime English learning. Blakey, T. English for Maritime Studies. Borg, W. Education Research.

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Boston: Perason Education. Callum, M. Developing Mariner Assessment. Coutroubis, A. Hart, D. Authentic Assessment. Addison: Wesley Publishing Company. Hibbard, K. International Maritime Organisation London: IMO. Meaningful Assessmentt. Joyce, B. Models of Teaching.

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Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Kent, L. Simulation of business Skills. Disadur pada 8 Juli , dari www. Kobayahsi, H. Mueller, J. Authentic Assessment Toolbox. North Central College. Mulyasa, E. Implementasi Kurikulum Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya. Authentic Assessment for English Language. Addison: Whisley Publishing Company.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15 — 18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The combine training The plyometric training and techniques — tactics was performed by the experimental group for eight weeks. The control group was performed only techniques — tactics basketball training for eight weeks. Within statistical analysis, the significance of differences between these groups was tested.

The arithmetic mean and standard deviation were used as descriptive statistics and Shapiro-Wilk test was used for normality distribution. While comparing paired groups Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed, Mann - Whitney U test was used for comparing independent groups. Statistical significance was taken as 0. European Journal of Sport Science, 8 5 , Janeira Ma MJ.

Coach Sport Science Journal, 3, J Strength Cond Res. Sports Med Phys Fitness. Tricoli, V. Journal Strength Conditional Researches. Baechle, T. Third edition China: Human Kinetics, Hindistan İ. Bogdanis, G. Journal Science Medicine Sport, 10 2 , Orhan, S. School of Physical Education and Sports 10 4 , Siegler, J. Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 17 2 , Fatouros, I. Journal Sports Medicine Physical Fitness. Humberto, M. Carlo, C. Euro Journal Applied physiology. Matavulj, D. Journal Sport Medicine Physology Fitness, 41 2 , Toumi, H.

Medicine Science Sports Exercises, 36 9 , Akkoyunlu, Y. Kannus, P. Architecture Physology Medicine Rehabilitation, 69 11 , Orchard, J. Am Journal Sports Medicine, 25 1 , 81— Mjolsnes, R. Miyaguchi, K. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28 3 , Asadi, A. Sport Sciences Health, 9 , — Arazi, H. Reaction time is one of the most determinative elements for a successful sports performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of week feet reaction developing trainings upon feet reaction time of females at age interval.

Volunteer sportsmen between 11 and 13 age interval who were active in Tokat Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports participated into the study. The volunteers were totally 22 sportsmen including 11 experimental and 11 controls who have not participated into a programmed physical activity before. To the experimental group, 3-day minute trainings in a week for 12 weeks were administered to develop feet training time as being prepared in accordance with their age.

The control group did not participate into any exercise programs during this process. Reaction time measurements were performed to the volunteers twice as before and after the 3-month training through New Test measurement battery. At the end of the study, whereas no significant difference was found in the control group, a significant difference was obtained in pre-test and post-test averages of the trainings performed to develop feet reaction when carried out regularly for 12 weeks.

We considered that the trainings we performed in the study would increase the performance and provide positive contributions upon foot reaction time of the sportsmen at age interval. Agopyan, A, Rhythmic gymnastics morphological characteristics of impact performance. İstanbul: Pelin Publishers. Arslan, E. The effects of the exercise program on visual and audial reaction time of the healty children in the group of ages.

Applied sport psychology. Bompa, T. Training theory and method. Journal of New World Sciences Academy, 3 3 : The effect of changes in reaction time, agility and anaerobic performance during the all season in female volleyball players. The effect of judo technique training and games on reaction times in children aged years.

The effect of hand preference on the determining of the visual and auditory simple reaction times in the combat sports. The evaluation of physical and motoric properties of elementary students ages Effects of strength training of quick age male table tennis players.

Master's Thesis, Ankara: Gazi University. Effects on reaction time of concentration study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 4 4 : Davranche, K. Physical exercise facilitates motor processes in simple reaction time performence; on electromyographic analysis. Neuroscience Letters, Dube, S. Simple visual reaction time in badminton players: a comparative study. Ergen, E. Physiological Profile of oil wrestlers. Paper presented in H. Sport Science and Technology Publication. Fong, S. Health through martial arts training: Physical fitness and reaction time in adolescent Taekwondo practitioners. Health, 5 6A3 : Examining of reaction time of professional soccer players according to their playing positions.

Guckstein, M. Brain mechanism in reaction time. Brain Research, 1—9. Determination of physical and physiological profiles of Turkish female national team wrestlers. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 13 1 : The differences in reaction times of elite football, handball and ice hockey goal keepers.

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The effect of training on pituitary gland hormones and liver enzymes in elite wrestlers. Kermen, O. Tennis technical and tactics. Ankara: Nobel Publishers. Effect of anaerobic power on the reaction times of junior national team wrestlers.

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International Journal of Academic Research, 5 1 : The effects of exercise on the reaction time of adolescent wrestlers. Polat, G. Sevim, Y. Training Information. Ankara: Fil Publishers. Inspection of the effects of twelve-week tennis courses on visual and auditory reaction times of years old girl children. Yoon, J. Physiological profiles of elite senior wrestlers. Sports Medicine, 32 4 : The judo is a popular sport which people engaged in more than countries at any age in the world.

Besides its popularity, the studies on this field continue to increase gradually. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to measure pre-competition anxieties, and to evaluate data obtained of the pre-competition concerns of the judo athletes who participated in the IJF Grand Prix competition, Samsun in Turkey. There were no significant differences between countries and between Turkey and other countries with each other.

Quantitative variables were analyzed according to sex. Keywords: Anxiety, judo, competitive state anxiety inventory—2 CSAI—2 , sport, grand prix competition. Alexander D Amtmann J and Cotton A Strength and Conditioning for Judo. National Strength and Conditioning Association, 27 2 , 26— Scand J Med Sci Sports, 20 : e—e, Burton D Do Anxious Swimmers Swim Slower? Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 45— Cerin E Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, — Dictionary of Psychology. Journal of sport behavior, 27, Edwards T and Hardy L Journal of Sport Behaviour, 27, 93— Gil K Judo, Nedernhausen, Hale BD and Whitehousei A.

The Sport Psychologist, 12, 40— Physiological Requirements of Judo Combat. İnternational Sport Med Journal, 10 3 , Hoff FF Sports Biomechanics, 2 2 , Kalina RM Biblioteka Trenera. COS, Warszawa. Archieves of Budo. Jan 3. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Champaign, II: Human Kinetics. Matsumoto DR An Introduction to Kodokan Judo. Tokyo, Japan: Hon-No- Tomosha, pp.

The Sport Psychologist, 9, 51— The Sport Psychologist,17, — The İnternational Journal of the History of Sport, 28 7 , — Journal of Sport Behavior, 34 3 Murphy S The Sport Psych Handbook Ed. Nishime RS Curr Sports Med Rep 6, — Parfitt G. Journal of Sports Science, 17, — Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 6 , Specific Exercise Testing in Judo Athletes.

Sato S. Theory and Research on Anxiety. Spielberg Ed. Spielberger C, Hackfort D K Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 9, 24 1— Weinberg RS Gould D Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology 3nd Ed. Champaign, IL, Human Kinetics. Woodman T Hardy T Journal of Sport Sciences, 21, — The aim of this research is to examine decision making level of wrestlers who joined Turkey inter university wrestling championship, according to variables as wrestlers' sex, age, grade, department, and education type.

Study group consists of 34 females and males, totally athletes, who joined Turkey Inter University Wrestling Championship at the academic year of SPSS20 statistics package program is used in analysis and explication of data. At the end of the research; according to sex, department, grade, education type, and age variables: self-esteem in decision making, careful decision making, avoidant decision making, suspensive decision making, and panic decision making situations of students, who joined Wrestling Championship, are evaluated.

While significant difference was statistically found according to sex, department, grade, education type variables; significant difference was not found in the variable of age. Doctorate Thesis, Konya. Brown EJ and Mann L The Relationship Between family Structure and Process. Deniz, E. Mann, et al. International Journal of Psychology, 33 , Newell BR, Rakow T. This study sought to explore the leisure attitudes of the individuals participating in the dance activities, to compare them on the basis of various variables and to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between these attitudes and the life satisfaction of the individual.


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The research sample includes individuals participating in the activities of the dance halls and dance courses in Ankara and their mean age is Descriptive statistics of the leisure attitudes and life satisfaction levels of the individuals were produced. In addition, independent one sample t-test t-test and one way analysis of variance OneWay ANOVA were performed to explore whether leisure attitudes of the individuals vary according to the variables.

With a view to bring to light the relationship between leisure attitude and life satisfaction, Pearson Correlation analysis was performed. The t-test and ANOVA, which conducted on the basis of the findings of the abovementioned analysis to compare the leisure attitude scores and its subscales, revealed that the scores of leisure attitudes of the individuals participating to the dance activity and their cognitive and behavioural subscales do not vary according to their gender, age groups and educational level.

However, the findings also shed light on that the participants whose perceived income level is low outscored the ones whose perceived income level is medium or high, only at the behavioural subscale in the comparison through the variable of perceived income level. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the leisure attitudes of the participants were positive and their life satisfaction levels were medium.

Consequently, the leisure attitudes of the individuals participating in the dance activities were positive; their life satisfaction levels were medium in this study and it can be said that the more their life satisfaction level increases, the more positive their leisure attitudes will become. International Sports Sciences Congress , Antalya. Arslan S Activity through years: leisure, leisure satisfaction, and life satisfaction.

Sociology of Sport Journal, 10 , Budak S Psychology Dictionary. Diener, E. The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49 1 , Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale among turkish university students, correctional officers, and elderly adults.

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